Northern Cyprus hosts over 1600 plant specia of which 22 are endemic, 350 species of birds, of which 7 are endemic, and 26 different species of reptile and amphibia. The two main reasons for this amazing diversity are, firstly, that
Cyprus was not affected by the last ice-age (which wiped out many species from areas further north), and secondly, that Cyprus forms a resting and nesting station for birds migrating between Africa and Eastern Europe.
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has an intense Mediterranean climate with the typical seasonal rhythms strongly marked in respect of temperature, rainfall and weather generally. Hot, dry summers from mid-May to mid-October and rainy, rather changeable winters from mid-November to mid-March are separated by short autumn and spring seasons of rapid change in weather conditions.
The long narrow Besparmak mountain range, play an important part in the meteorology of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.The predominantly clear skies and extensive sunshine give large seasonal and daily differences between temperatures of the sea and the interior of the island which also cause considerable local effects especially near the coast.At Latitude 35 degrees north and Longitude 33 degrees east, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has a change in day-length from 9.8 hours in December to 14.5 hours in June. In summer the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is mainly under the influence of a shallow trough of low pressure extending from the great continental depression centered over southwest Asia. It is a season of high temperatures with almost cloudless skies. Rainfall is negligible but isolated thunderstorms sometimes occur giving rainfall amounting to less than 5% of the total in the average year. In winter, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is near the track of fairly frequent small depressions which cross the Mediterranean Sea from west to east between the continental anti-cyclone of Eurasia and the generally low pressure belt of North Africa. These depressions give periods of disturbed weather usually lasting for a day or so and produce most of the annual precipitation, the average amount from December to February being nearly two thirds of the year`s total.